The number of people living in Britain who were born in the West Indies grew from about 15,000 in 1951 to 172,000 in 1961. Due to a perceived “heavy influx of immigrants”, the British government created the Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962, barring the future right of entry previously enjoyed by citizens of the Commonwealth, which many considered a direct bar on people of colour.
Racism rooted in fear and mistrust erupted into violence in Notting Hill in 1958, when gangs of Teddy Boys roamed the streets attacking Black men (and murdering one, Kelso Cochrane from Antigua.) A Caribbean Carnival was held to try and improve race relations in 1959, later becoming the Notting Hill Carnival.
Notting Hill and Dale, which had been declining parts of the inner city, were gradually revitalised during the 1960s and 1970s. Some Afro-Caribbean new arrivals opened cafés and clubs, and Notting Hill gained a reputation as a bohemian area, attracting a young, trendy crowd of white as well as black people. Across London and Britain, the Windrush generation helped to rebuild the country from the devasation of the Second World War.